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PubChem
Name: Fluoxetine
PubChem Compound ID: 11758740
Description: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Molecular formula: C17H18F3NO
Molecular weight: 311.334 g/mol
DrugBank
Identification
Name: Fluoxetine
Name (isomeric): DB00472
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Synonyms:
Fluoxetine Hcl; Fluoxetine Hydrochloride; Fluoxetina [Spanish]; Fluoxetinum [INN-Latin]; Fluoxetina [INN-Spanish]
Brand: Adofen, Animex-On, Foxetin, Portal, Fluval, Fontex, Reneuron, Prozac Weekly, Fluctin, Eufor, Sarafem, Pulvules, Prozac, Fluoxeren, Deprex
Category: Antidepressants, Second-Generation, Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
CAS number: 54910-89-3
Pharmacology
Indication: Labeled indication include: major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and combination treatment with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Unlabeled indications include: selective mutism, mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and Raynaud's phenomenon.
Pharmacology:
Fluoxetine, an antidepressant agent belonging to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is used to treat depression, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, panic disorder and post-traumatic stress. According to the amines hypothesis, a functional decrease in the activity of amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, woul...
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Mechanism of Action:
Metabolized to norfluoxetine, fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), it blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine re...
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Absorption: Well absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration. Oral bioavailability is estimated to be at least 60-80%. Peak plasma concentrations occur within 4-8 hours following oral administration of conventional dosage preparations.
Protein binding: 94.5%
Biotransformation: Limited data from animal studies suggest that fluoxetine may undergo first-pass metabolism may occur via the liver and/or lungs. Fluoxetine appears to be extensively metabolized, likely in the liver, to norfluoxetine and other metabolites. Norfluoxetine, the principal active metabolite, is formed via N-demethylation of fluoxetine. Norfluoxetine appears to be comparable pharmacologic potency as fluoxetine. Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine both undergo phase II glucuronidation reactions in the liver. It is also thought that fluoxetine and norfluoxetine undergo O-dealkylation to form p-trifluoromethylphenol, which is then subsequently metabolized to hippuric acid.
Route of elimination: The primary route of elimination appears to be hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites excreted by the kidney.
Half Life: 1-3 days
Toxicity: Symptoms of overdose include agitation, restlessness, hypomania, and other signs of CNS excitation. LD50=284mg/kg (orally in mice). The most frequent side effects include: nervous system effects such as anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, fatigue or asthenia, tremor, and dizziness or lightheadedness; GI effects such as anorexia, nausea, and diarrhea; vasodilation; dry mouth; abnormal vision; decreased libido; abnormal ejaculation; rash; and sweating. Withdrawal symptoms include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory changes and hyperactivity.
Affected organisms: Humans and other mammals
Interactions
Food interaction:
Avoid alcohol.
Take with food to reduce irritation and nausea.
Drug interaction:
TamoxifenFluoxetine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
PhenelzinePossible severe adverse reaction with this combination
AmoxapineThe SSRI, fluoxetine, may increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive modulation of serotonin activity also increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for development of serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of amoxapine if fluoxetine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AlmotriptanIncreased risk of CNS adverse effects
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Fluoxetine, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
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