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Isoniazid (INH) is part of the first-line-therapy for tuberculosis (TB) but can cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Several candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been previously identified but the clinical utility of these SNPs in the prediction of INH-DILI remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between selected candidate SNPs and the risk of INH-DILI and to assess the clinical validity of associated variants in a Singaporean population. This was a case-control study where 24 INH-DILI cases and 79 controls were recruited from the TB control unit in a tertiary hospital. Logistic regression was used to test for the association between candidate SNPs and INH-DILI. NAT2 acetylator status was inferred from genotypes and tested for association with INH-DILI. Finally, clinical validity measures were estimated for significant variants. Two SNPs in NAT2 (rs1041983 and rs1495741) and NAT2 slow acetylators (SA) were significantly associated with INH-DILI (OR (95% CI) = 13.86 (4.30-44.70), 0.10 (0.03-0.33) and 9.98 (3.32-33.80), respectively). Based on an INH-DILI prevalence of 10%, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of NAT2 SA were 75%, 78%, 28% and 97%, respectively. The population attributable fraction (PAF) and number needed to test (NNT) for NAT2 SA were estimated to be 0.67 and 4.08, respectively. A model with clinical and NAT2 acetylator status provided significantly better prediction for INH-DILI than a clinical model alone (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.863 vs. 0.766, respectively, p = 0.027). We show the association between NAT2 SA and INH-DILI in a Singaporean population and demonstrated its clinical utility in the prediction of INH-DILI.

Citation

Sze Ling Chan, Angeline Poh Gek Chua, Folefac Aminkeng, Cynthia Bin Eng Chee, Shengnan Jin, Marie Loh, Suay Hong Gan, Yee Tang Wang, Liam R Brunham. Association and clinical utility of NAT2 in the prediction of isoniazid-induced liver injury in Singaporean patients. PloS one. 2017;12(10):e0186200

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PMID: 29036176

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