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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV -infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine that suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T-lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, monocyte-derived dendritic cells were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses. PRRSV increased both IL1RA gene expression and IL-1Ra protein production in the culture. The enhanced production of IL-1Ra was further confirmed in PRRSV-cultured PBMC and PRRSV-exposed pigs by flow cytometry. Myeloid cell population appeared to be the major IL-1Ra producer both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to the type 2 PRRSV, the highly pathogenic (HP)- PRRSV did not upregulate IL1RA gene expression in vitro. To determine the kinetics of PRRSV-induced IL1RA gene expression in relation to other pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, PRRSV-negative pigs were vaccinated with a commercially available type 2 modified-live PRRS vaccine or intranasally inoculated with HP-PRRSV. In modified-live PRRS vaccine pigs, upregulation of IL1RA, but not IL1B and IFNA, gene expression was observed from 2 days post- vaccination. Consistent with the in vitro findings, upregulation of IL1RA gene expression was not observed in the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs throughout the experiment. This study identified IL-1Ra as an early immunomodulatory mediator that could be involved in the immunopathogenesis of PRRSV infections.

Citation

Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajak, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: an early immunomodulatory cytokine induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. The Journal of general virology. 2017 Jan;98(1):77-88

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PMID: 27902420

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