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Isoprenoids consist of a large class of compounds that are present in all living organisms. They are derived from the 5C building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). In plants, IDP is synthesized in the cytoplasm from mevalonic acid via the MVA pathway, and in plastids from 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate through the MEP pathway. The enzyme IDP isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the interconversion between IDP and DMADP. Most plants contain two IDI enzymes, the functions of which are characteristically compartmentalized in the cells. Carotenoids are isoprenoids that play essential roles in photosynthesis and provide colors to flowers and fruits. They are synthesized in the plastids via the MEP pathway. Fruits of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) accumulate high levels of the red carotene lycopene. We have identified mutations in tomato that reduce overall carotenoid accumulation in fruits. Four alleles of a locus named FRUIT CAROTENOID DEFICIENT 1 (fcd1) were characterized. Map-based cloning of fcd1 indicated that this gene encodes the plastidial enzyme IDI1. Lack of IDI1 reduced the concentration of carotenoids in fruits, flowers and cotyledons, but not in mature leaves. These results indicate that the plastidial IDI plays an important function in carotenoid biosynthesis, thus highlighting its role in optimizing the ratio between IDP and DMADP as precursors for different downstream isoprenoid pathways. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Ilya Pankratov, Ryan McQuinn, Jochanan Schwartz, Einat Bar, Zhangjun Fei, Efraim Lewinsohn, Dani Zamir, James J Giovannoni, Joseph Hirschberg. Fruit carotenoid-deficient mutants in tomato reveal a function of the plastidial isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) in carotenoid biosynthesis. The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology. 2016 Jun 11

PMID: 27288653

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