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    The identification of molecular networks at the system level in mammals is accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics without crossing, which requires both the efficient production of whole-body biallelic knockout (KO) mice in a single generation and high-performance phenotype analyses. Here, we show that the triple targeting of a single gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system achieves almost perfect KO efficiency (96%-100%). In addition, we developed a respiration-based fully automated non-invasive sleep phenotyping system, the Snappy Sleep Stager (SSS), for high-performance (95.3% accuracy) sleep/wake staging. Using the triple-target CRISPR and SSS in tandem, we reliably obtained sleep/wake phenotypes, even in double-KO mice. By using this system to comprehensively analyze all of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor family members, we found Nr3a as a short-sleeper gene, which is verified by an independent set of triple-target CRISPR. These results demonstrate the application of mammalian reverse genetics without crossing to organism-level systems biology in sleep research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Genshiro A Sunagawa, Kenta Sumiyama, Maki Ukai-Tadenuma, Dimitri Perrin, Hiroshi Fujishima, Hideki Ukai, Osamu Nishimura, Shoi Shi, Rei-ichiro Ohno, Ryohei Narumi, Yoshihiro Shimizu, Daisuke Tone, Koji L Ode, Shigehiro Kuraku, Hiroki R Ueda. Mammalian Reverse Genetics without Crossing Reveals Nr3a as a Short-Sleeper Gene. Cell reports. 2016 Jan 26;14(3):662-77

    PMID: 26774482

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