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C-terminal fragments of adipokine apelin are able to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but whether their effects are manifested during cardioplegic arrest remain obscure. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of natural apelin-12 (H-Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Met-Pro-Phe-OH, A12) and its novel structural analogs (H-(N(α)Me)Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Nle-Pro-Phe-OH, AI, and N(G)-Arg(N(G)NO2)-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Nle-Pro-Phe-NH2, AII) as additives to crystalloid cardioplegia and explore benefits of early reperfusion with these peptides. Isolated working rat hearts subjected to normothermic global ischemia and further reperfusion were used. St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution No.2 (STH2) containing 140 μM A12, AI, or AII was infused for 5 min at 25 °C before ischemia. In separate series, peptide administration was used for 5 min after ischemia. Metabolic state of the hearts was evaluated by myocardial content of high energy phosphates and lactate. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was assessed in myocardial effluent on early reperfusion. Addition of the peptides to STH2 enhanced functional and metabolic recovery of reperfused hearts compared with those of control (STH2 without additives). Cardioplegia with analog AII was the most effective and accompanied by a reduction of postischemic LDH leakage. Infusion of A12, AI, or AII after ischemia improved the majority indices of cardiac function and metabolic state of the heart by the end of reperfusion. However, the overall protective effect of the peptides was less than when they were added to STH2. Enhancement of apelin bioavailability may minimize myocardial I/R damage during cardiac surgery. Structural analogs of A12 are promising components of clinical cardioplegic solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Oleg I Pisarenko, Valentin S Shulzhenko, Yulia A Pelogeykina, Irina M Studneva. Enhancement of crystalloid cardioplegic protection by structural analogs of apelin-12. The Journal of surgical research. 2015 Mar;194(1):18-24

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PMID: 25491175

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