Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is an optical imaging agent used with fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) for the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU) and a recent, more detailed European expert consensus statement agree that HAL-FC has a role in improving detection of NMIBC and provide recommendations on situations for its use. Since the publication of the EAU guidelines and the European consensus statement, new evidence on the efficacy of HAL-FC in reducing recurrence of NMIBC, compared with white light cystoscopy (WLC), have been published. To consider whether these new trials have an impact on the expert guidelines and on clinical practice (e.g. supporting existing recommendations or providing evidence for a change or expansion of practice), a group of bladder cancer experts from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden met to address the following questions: What is the relevance of the new data on HAL-FC for clinical practice in managing NMIBC? What impact do the new data have on European guidelines? How could HAL-FC be used in clinical practice? and What further information on HAL-FC is required to optimize the management of NMIBC? This article reports the outcomes of the discussion at the Nordic expert panel meeting, concluding that, in line with European guidance, HAL-FC has an important role in the initial detection of NMIBC and for follow-up of patients to assess tumour recurrence after WLC. It provides practical advice, with an algorithm on the use of this diagnostic procedure for urologists managing NMIBC.


Per-Uno Malmström, Magnus Grabe, Erik Skaaheim Haug, Pekka Hellström, Gregers G Hermann, Karin Mogensen, Mika Raitanen, Rolf Wahlqvist. Role of hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in bladder cancer: critical analysis of the latest data and European guidance. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. 2012 Apr;46(2):108-16

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 22087730

View Full Text