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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, produces Apx toxins that are recognized as major virulence factors. Recently, we showed that ApxIIIA-cytotoxic activity specifically targets Sus scrofa leukocytes. Since both LtxA from Aggregatibacter actinomycetem comitans (aggressive periodontitis in humans) and LktA from Mannheimia haemolytica (pneumonia in ruminants) share this characteristic, respectively towards human and ruminant leukocytes, and because both use the CD18 subunit to interact with their respective LFA-1, we hypothesized that ApxIIIA was likely to bind porcine CD18 to exercise its deleterious effects on pig leukocytes. A beta(2)-integrin-deficient ApxIIIA-resistant human erythroleukemic cell line was transfected either with homologous or heterologous CD11a/ CD18 heterodimers using a set of plasmids coding for human (ApxIIIA-resistant), bovine (-resistant) and porcine (-susceptible) CD11a and CD18 subunits. Cell preparations that switched from ApxIIIA-resistance to -susceptibility were then sought to identify the LFA-1 subunit involved. The results showed that the ApxIIIA-resistant recipient cell line was rendered susceptible only if the CD18 partner within the LFA-1 heterodimer was that of the pig. It is concluded that porcine CD18 is necessary to mediate A. pleuropneumoniae ApxIIIA toxin-induced leukolysis.

Citation

Philippe G A C Vanden Bergh, Laurent L M Zecchinon, Thomas Fett, Daniel Desmecht. Porcine CD18 mediates Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIII species-specific toxicity. Veterinary research. 2009 Jul-Aug;40(4):33

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PMID: 19356397

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