Clear Search sequence regions


Microtubules are polarized polymers that exhibit dynamic instability, with alternating phases of elongation and shortening, particularly at the more dynamic plus-end. Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) localize to and track with growing microtubule plus-ends in the cell. +TIPs regulate microtubule dynamics and mediate interactions with other cellular components. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the +TIP tracking activity are not well understood, however. We reconstituted the +TIP tracking of mammalian proteins EB1 and CLIP-170 in vitro at single-molecule resolution using time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that EB1 is capable of dynamically tracking growing microtubule plus-ends. Our single-molecule studies demonstrate that EB1 exchanges rapidly at microtubule plus-ends with a dwell time of <1 s, indicating that single EB1 molecules go through multiple rounds of binding and dissociation during microtubule polymerization. CLIP-170 exhibits lattice diffusion and fails to selectively track microtubule ends in the absence of EB1; the addition of EB1 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate plus-end tracking by CLIP-170. Single-molecule analysis of the CLIP-170-EB1 complex also indicates a short dwell time at growing plus-ends, an observation inconsistent with the copolymerization of this complex with tubulin for plus-end-specific localization. GTP hydrolysis is required for +TIP tracking, because end-specificity is lost when tubulin is polymerized in the presence of guanosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate (GMPCPP). Together, our data provide insight into the mechanisms driving plus-end tracking by mammalian +TIPs and suggest that EB1 specifically recognizes the distinct lattice structure at the growing microtubule end.

Citation

Ram Dixit, Brian Barnett, Jacob E Lazarus, Mariko Tokito, Yale E Goldman, Erika L F Holzbaur. Microtubule plus-end tracking by CLIP-170 requires EB1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009 Jan 13;106(2):492-7

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances


PMID: 19126680

View Free Full Text