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7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1) is a newly identified intestinal microbial metabolite from the food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Although the mutagenic potential of the endogenous N-hydroxy PhIP derivate has been reported, the risks associated with PhIP-M1 have not yet been explored. In this work, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects originating from PhIP-M1 were assessed in the epithelial intestinal Caco-2 cell line. PhIP-M1 significantly decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and protein synthesis, with IC50 values of, respectively, 180+/-39.4 and 173+/-20.3 microM after 24h, and 33.8+/-3.5 and 37.3+/-10.9 microM after 72 h. Apoptosis within the concentration ranges of cytotoxicity was confirmed by morphological examination, DAPI nuclear staining and annexin V staining. PhIP-M1 provoked cell cycle arrest, characterized by a significant increase in the number of nucleoids in the G2/M phase. A dose-dependent increase in DNA damage, as quantified by the alkaline comet assay, was observed after 3h in the 50-200 microM range. Because these PhIP-M1-induced genomic and cellular events may contribute to the carcinogenicity of PhIP, the potency of the colon microbiota to bioactivate PhIP must be included in future risk assessments.


Lynn Vanhaecke, Lara Derycke, Frank Le Curieux, Sofie Lust, Daniel Marzin, Willy Verstraete, Marc Bracke. The microbial PhIP metabolite 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1) induces DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest towards Caco-2 cells. Toxicology letters. 2008 Apr 21;178(1):61-9

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PMID: 18375078

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