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The basic components of the plant cell cycle are G1 (postmitotic interphase), S-phase (DNA synthesis phase), G2 (premitotic interphase) and mitosis/cytokinesis. Proliferating cells are phosphoregulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). Plant D-type cyclins are sensors of the G0 to G1 transition, and are also important for G2/M. At G1/S, the S-phase transcription factor, E2F, is released from inhibitory retinoblastoma protein. Negative regulation of G1 events is through KRPs (Kip-related proteins). Plant S-phase genes are similar to animal ones, but timing of expression can be different (e.g. CDC6 at the start of S-phase) and functional evidence is limited. At G2/M, A-type and the unique B-type CDKs when bound to A, B and D cyclins, drive cells into division; they are negatively regulated by ICK1/2 and perhaps also by WEE1 kinase. In Arabidopsis, a putative CDC25 lacks a regulatory domain. Mitosis depends on correct temporal activity of CDKs, Aurora kinases and anaphase promotion complex; CDK-cyclin B activity beyond metaphase is catastrophic. Endoreduplication (re-replication of DNA in the absence of mitosis) is characterized by E2F expression and down-regulation of mitotic cyclins. Some cell size data support, whilst others negate, the idea of cell size having an impact on development.

Citation

Dennis Francis. The plant cell cycle--15 years on. The New phytologist. 2007;174(2):261-78

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PMID: 17388890

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