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A series of iron chelators, three (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (DADFT) and three (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (DADMDFT) analogues are synthesized and assessed for their lipophilicity (log Papp), iron-clearing efficiency (ICE) in rodents and iron-loaded primates (Cebus apella), toxicity in rodents, and organ distribution in rodents. The results lead to a number of generalizations useful in chelator design strategies. In rodents, while log Papp is a good predictor of a chelator's ICE, chelator liver concentration is a better tool. In primates, log Papp is a good predictor of ICE, but only when comparing structurally very similar chelators. There is a profound difference in toxicity between the DADMDFT and DADFT series: DADMDFTs are less toxic. Within the DADFT family of ligands, the more lipophilic ligands are generally more toxic. Lipophilicity can have a profound effect on ligand organ distribution, and ligands can thus be targeted to organs compromised in iron overload disease, for example, the heart.


Raymond J Bergeron, Jan Wiegand, James S McManis, Neelam Bharti. The design, synthesis, and evaluation of organ-specific iron chelators. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2006 Nov 30;49(24):7032-43

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PMID: 17125256

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