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Compounds isolated from the hexane extract of the leaves of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L. M. Perry were tested for inhibitory activity against the following serine proteases: trypsin, thrombin and prolyl endopeptidase. The compounds were identified as an intractable mixture of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene (1), lupeol (2), betulin (3), epi-betulinic acid (4), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-methylchalcone (5), 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-3'-methylchalcone (6), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (7), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone (8) and 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (9). Hydrogenation of compounds 5, 6 and 7 yielded compound 8, 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone (10) and 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethyldihydrochalcone (11), respectively. The hydrogenated products of compounds 6 and 7 were also tested for enzyme inhibitory activity. In addition, beta-sitosterol (12) and beta-D-sitosterylglucoside (13) were also isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of compounds 1-6, 8 and 13 from this plant. Compounds 3-8 and 10 exhibited significant and selective inhibition against prolyl endopeptidase among three serine proteases. This is the first report of this kind of activity for all these compounds.


Evangeline C Amor, Irene M Villaseñor, Amsha Yasin, M Iqbal Choudhary. Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors from Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L. M. Perry. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences. 2004 Jan-Feb;59(1-2):86-92

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PMID: 15018059

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